Tourette Syndrome

What is Tourette Syndrome?

The diagnostic criteria for Tourette Disorder or Tourette Syndrome (TS) are motor and vocal tics. Tics are usually sudden movements or sounds. The most common motor tics are eye squinting, facial grimacing or head shaking. Common vocal tics are throat clearing, lip smacking or sniffing. The typical age for these tics to begin are 4 or 5 years of age. Boys have the disorder 3 to 9 times more frequently than girls. In most cases the disorder peaks in severity at 10-12 years of age. In about 25% of patients the disorder does not improve until adolescence. In 10% of patients the disorder is severe and persists through adulthood. Medication is often helpful in patients with moderate to severe tics or tics which are severe or unacceptable. The book Children with Tourette Syndrome provides management suggestions for parents and teachers.

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Publications on Tourette Syndrome

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  • Burd, L., Qing, L., Kerbeshian, J., Klug, M.G., & Freeman, R.D. Tourette Syndrome and Comorbid Pervasive Developmental Disorders.Journal of Child Neurology.2009. 24(5): 170-175.

  • Kerbeshian, J., Peng, C.Z., Burd, L. Tourette Syndrome and Comorbid Early-onset Schizophrenia.Journal of Psychomatic Research2009 67: 515-523.

  • Burd, L., Christensen, T., & Kerbeshian, J. Speech, Language, and Communication in Tourette Disorder.Annual Review of Applied Linguistics.2008. 28: 170-190.

  • Freeman, R.D., Zinner, S.H., Müller-Vahl, K.R., Fast, D.K., Kano, Y., Rothenberger, A., Roessner, V., Kerbeshian, J., Burd, L, Jankovic, J., Janik, P., Shady, G., Robertson, M.M., Stern, J.S., Lang, A.E., Budman, C., Magor, A., Ruth, B., Berlin Jr., C. Tourette Syndrome International Database Consortium. Coprophenomena in Tourette Syndrome.Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology.2008. 51(3): 218-227.

  • Kerbeshian, J., Burd, L., & Tait, A. Chain Reaction or Time Bomb: A Neuropsychiatric-Developmental/Neurodevelopmental Formulation of Tourettisms, Pervasive Developmental Disorder, and Schizophreniform Symptomatology Associated with PANDAS.World Journal of Biological Psychiatry.2007. 8(3): 201-207.

  • Burd, L., Freeman, R.D., Klug, M.G., & Kerbeshian, J. Variables Associated with Increased Tic Severity in 5,500 Participants with Tourette Syndrome.Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities.2006. 18(1): 13-24.

  • Burd, L., Freeman, R.D., Klug, M.G., & Kerbeshian, J. Tourette Tourette Syndrome and Learning Disabilities.BMC Pediatrics.2005. 5: 34.

  • Klug, M.G., Burd, L., Kerbeshian, J., Benz, B., & Martsolf, J.T. A Comparison of the Effects of Parental Risk Markers on Pre- and Perinatal Variables in Multiple Patient Cohorts with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, Autism, Tourette Syndrome, and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: An Enviromic Analysis.Neurotoxicology and Teratology.2003. 25(6): 707-717.

  • Burd, L., Kerbeshian, J., Barth, A., Klug, M., Avery, K., & Benz, B. Long-Term Follow-up of an Epidemiologically Defined Cohort of Patients with Tourette Syndrome.Journal of Child Neurology.2001. 16(6): 431-437.

  • Freeman, R.D., Fast, D.K., Burd, L., Kerbeshian, J., Robinson, M.M., & Sandor, P. An International Perspective on Tourette Syndrome: Selected Findings from 3,500 Individuals in 22 Countries.Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology.2000. 42(7): 436-447.

  • Kerbeshian, J. & Burd, L. Peek-A-Boo Fragile Site? Or a Peek-A-Boo Paper?American Journal of Medical Genetics.2000. 96(3): 430-431.

  • Kerbeshian, J. & Burd, L. Comorbid Down’s Syndrome, Tourette Syndrome and Intellectual Disability: Registry Prevalence and Developmental Course.Journal of Intellectual Disability Research.2000. 44(1): 430-431.

  • Kerbeshian, J., Severud, R., Burd, L., & Larson, L. Peek-A-Boo Fragile Site at 16D Associated with Tourette Syndrome, Bipolar Disorder, Autistic Disorder, and Mental Retardation.American Journal of Medical Genetics.2000. 96(1): 69-73.

  • Bagheri, M., Kerbeshian, J., & Burd, L. Recognition and Management of Tourette’s Syndrome and Tic Disorders.American Family Physician.1999. 59(8): 2263-2272.

  • Burd, L., Severud, R., Klug, M.G., & Kerbeshian, J. Prenatal and Perinatal Risk Factors for Tourette Disorder.Journal of Perinatal Medicine.1999. 27: 295-302.

  • Burd, L., Kerbeshian, J., & Meredith, J.L. Neuropathology and Molecular Studies of a Patient with Tourette Syndrome and Huntington Disease.Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities.1997. 9(3): 255-263.

  • Kerbeshian, J., Burd, L., & Barth, A. The Construct of Canalization and Tourette Syndrome.Perceptual and Motor Skills.1997. 84: 126.

  • Kerbeshian, J. & Burd, L. Case Study: Comorbidity Among Tourette’s Syndrome, Autistic Disorder and Bipolar Disorder.Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.1996. 35(5): 681-685.

  • Kerbeshian, J., Burd, L., & Klug, M.G. Comorbid Tourette’s Disorder and Bipolar Disorder: An Etiologic Perspective.American Journal of Psychiatry.1995. 152(11): 1646-1651.

  • Burd, L., Leech, C., Kerbeshian, J., & Gascon, G.G. A Review of the Relationship Between Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome and Speech and Language.Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities.1994. 6(3): 271-289.

  • Kerbeshian, J. & Burd, L. Tourette Syndrome: A Developmental Psychobiologic View.Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities.1994. 6(3): 203-218.

  • Burd, L., Kauffman, D.W., & Kerbeshian, J. Tourette Syndrome and Learning Disabilities.Journal of Learning Disabilities.1992. 25: 598-604.

  • Kerbeshian, J. & Burd, L. Tourette Syndrome and Recurrent Paraphilic Masturbatory Fantasy.Canadian Journal of Psychiatry.1991. 376: 155-157.

  • Kerbeshian, J., Burd, L., Leech, C., & Rorabaugh, A. Huntington Disease and Childhood-Onset Tourette Syndrome.American Journal of Medical Genetics.1991. 39: 1-3.

  • Kerbeshian, J. & Burd L. Tourette Disorder and Bipolar Symptomatology in Childhood and Adolescence.Canadian Journal of Psychiatry.1989. 34: 230-233.

  • Burd, L. & Kerbeshian J. Familial Pervasive Development Disorder, Tourette Disorder and Hyperlexia.Neuroscience and Bio¬behavioral Reviews.1988. 12: 233-234.

  • Burd, L. & Kerbeshian J. Diagnosis and Management of Gilles de la Tourette Disorder in Rural North Dakota Children.Rural Special Education Quarterly.1988. 9: 20-26.

  • Burd, L. & Kerbeshian, J. Nocturnal Coprolalia and Phonic Tics.American Journal of Psychiatry.1988. 145: 132.

  • Burd, L. & Kerbeshian, J. Symptom Substitution in Tourette Disorder.Lancet.1988. 2: 1072.

  • Burd, L., Kerbeshian, J., Cook, J., Bornhoeft, D.M., & Fisher W. Tourette Disorder in North Dakota.Neuroscience and Biobe¬havioral Reviews.1988. 12: 223-228.

  • Kerbeshian, J. & Burd L. A Clinical Pharmacological Approach to Treating Tourette Syndrome in Children and Adolescents.Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews.1988. 12: 241-245.

  • Kerbeshian, J. & Burd L. Differential Responsiveness to Lithium in Patients with Tourette Disorder.Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews.1988. 12: 247-250.

  • Kerbeshian, J. & Burd L. Tourette Disorder and Schizophrenia in Children.Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews.1988. 12: 267-270.

  • Kerbeshian, J. & Burd L. Tourette Disorder and Mutational Falsetto.Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews.1988. 12: 271-273.

  • Kerbeshian, J., Gascon, G., & Burd L. A Role for Biogenic Amines in Developmental Language Disorders.Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews.1988. 12: 289-293.

  • Burd, L. & Kerbeshian J. Onset of Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome Before One Year of Age.American Journal of Psychiatry.1987. 144(8): 1066-1067.

  • Burd, L. & Kerbeshian, J. Treatment-generated Problems Associated with Behavior Modification in Tourette Disorder.Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology.1987. 29: 831-833.

  • Burd, L., Fisher, W., Kerbeshian, J., & Arnold M.E. Is Development of Tourette Disorder a Marker for Improvement in Patients with Autism and Other Pervasive Developmental Disorders?Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.1987. 26: 162-165.

  • Kerbeshian, J. & Burd L. Are Schizophreniform Symptoms Present in Attenuated Form in Children with Tourette Disorder and Other Developmental Disorders?Canadian Journal of Psychiatry.1987. 32(2): 123-135.

  • Kerbeshian, J. & Burd, L. Novel Side Effects of Clonidine in the Treatment of Tourette Disorder.Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology.1987. 7: 207-208.

  • Burd, L. Bornhoeft, D.M., & Kerbeshian J. Fragile X Syndrome: Developmental Aspects.Child Study Journal.1986. 16(4): 285-296.

  • Burd, L., Kerbeshian, J., Fisher, W., & Gascon G. Anticonvulsant Medications: An Iatrogenic Cause of Tic Disorders.Canadian Journal of Psychiatry.1986. 31(5): 419-423.

  • Burd, L., Kerbeshian, J., Fisher, W., Barcome, D., & Lipp L. Pseudohemiparesis and Tourette Syndrome.Journal of Child Neurology.1986. 1: 369-371.

  • Burd, L., Kerbeshian, J., Wikenheiser, M., & Fisher W. Prevalence of Gilles de la Tourette’s Syndrome in North Dakota Adults.American Journal of Psychiatry.1986. 143(6): 787-788.

  • Burd, L., Kerbeshian, J., Wikenheiser, M., & Fisher W. Brief Report: A Prevalence Study of Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome in North Dakota School-Aged Children.Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry.1986. 25(4): 552-553.

  • Fisher, W., Conlon, C., Burd, L., & Conlon, R. Educating Children and Adults on Coping with Tourette Syndrome.Perceptual Motor Skills.1986. 62: 530.

  • Kerbeshian, J. & Burd L. Asperger's Syndrome and Tourette Syndrome: The Case of the Pinball Wizard.British Journal of Psychiatry.1986. 148: 731-736.

  • Kerbeshian, J. & Burd L. A Second Visually Impaired, Mentally Retarded Male With Pervasive Developmental Disorder, Tourette Disorder and Ganser’s Syndrome: Diagnostic Classification and Treatment.Interna¬tional Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine.1986. 16(1): 67-75.

  • Burd, L. & Kerbeshian J. Tourette Syndrome, Atypical Pervasive Developmental Disorder, and Ganser Syndrome in a 15-year-old, Visually Impaired, Mentally Retarded Boy.Canadian Journal of Psychiatry.1985. 30(1): 74-76.

  • Fisher, W., Burd, L., & Kerbeshian J. Integrating Developmental, Pharmacologic and Psychologic Diagnosis and Management Through the Transdisciplinary Team Process.Rehabilitation Literature.1985. 46(9-10): 268-271.

  • Fisher, W., Burd, L., Kuna, D.P., & Berg D. Attention Deficit Disorders and the Hyperactivities in Multiply Disabled Children.Rehabilitation Literature .1985. 46(9-10): 250-254.

  • Kerbeshian, J., Burd, L., Fisher, W., Martsolf, J., & Wikenheiser M. Gilles de la Tourette Disease in Multiply Disabled Children.Rehabilitation Literature.1985. 46(9-10): 255-258.

  • Burd, L., & Kerbeshian, J. Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome and Bipolar Disorder.Archives of Neurology.1984. 41: 1236.

  • Kerbeshian, J., Burd, L., & Martsolf J. Fragile X Syndrome Associated with Tourette Symptomatology in A Male with Moderate Mental Retardation and Autism.Journal of Developmental Behavioral Pediatrics .1984. 5(4): 201-203.

  • Kerbeshian, J., Burd, L., & Martsolf J. A Family with Fragile X Syndrome.The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease.1984. 172(9): 549-551.