Fetal Alcohol Syndrome


Online Clinic


Fetal Alcohol Syndrome


What is Fetal Alcohol Syndrome?
This is a leading identifiable cause of mental retardation in the United States. Children with this syndrome have short stature, they are slender, have a distinctive pattern of facial features and most importantly brain damage. About 1% of all live births in the U.S. have learning or behavior problems caused by prenatal alcohol exposure. The cause of the syndrome is exposure to alcohol during fetal development. Many children with this syndrome also have mental retardation or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The syndrome has severe behavioral implications and requires long term intensive services. The book Children with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome provides management strategies for parents and schools.
Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder Data

Tools for Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

  • AD-HD Rating Scale

  • Assessment of Alcohol Exposure (During Pregnancy )

  • Assessment of Alcohol Exposure (Prior to Pregnancy )

  • Assessment of Smoking Exposure ( During Pregnancy )

  • Assessment of Smoking Exposure (Prior to Pregnancy )

  • Calculate Maternal Risk Score.

  • Community Based Assessment

  • Epidemiology - Diagnostic Test Calculator

  • Epidemiology - Number Needed to Treat Calculator

  • Epidemiology - Risk Calculator

  • FAS Epidemiologic Exposure Model

  • Prenatal Alcohol Use Assessment booklet

  • Prenatal Blood Alcohol Concentration Calculator (.xlsx format)

  • Prenatal Risk Assessment Questionnaire

  • Prevalence & Cost Calculator

  • Rating Behavior Scale

  • Risk Marker Score

  • Fetal Alcohol Syndrom Presentations & Slides

  • Adverse Outcomes from Prenatal Alcohol Exposure

  • FAS

  • Fetal Alcohol Syndrome in North Dakota (PDF)

  • Fetal Alcohol Syndrome in North Dakota (PowerPoint)

  • Publications on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

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  • Burd, L. Getting an Early Start on Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders. Head Start Newsletter. July, 2006.  

  • Burd, L., Cohen, C., Shaw, R., & Norris, J. A Court Team Model for Care of Young Children in Foster Care: The Role of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders. The Journal of Psychiatry and Law 2011 (in press) 

  • Burd, L., Fast, D.K., Conry, J., & Williams, A. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders as a Marker for Increased Risk of Involvement With Correction Systems The Journal of Psychiatry and Law 2011 (in press) 

  • Li, Q., Fisher, W.W., Peng, C.Z., Williams, A.D., & Burd. L. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: A Population Based Study of Premature Mortality Rates in the Mothers. Maternal & Child Health 2011 (in press) 

  • Burd, L. and Christensen, T. Treatment of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders. Are We Ready Yet? Journal of Psychopharmacology. 2009. 29(1): 

  • Odendaal, H.J., Steyn, D. Wilhelm, Elliot, Amy, & Burd, L. Combined Effects of Cigarette Smoking and Alcohol Consumption on Perinatal Outcome. Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation. 2009. 67: 1-8.

  • Burd, L. Response to Letter to the Editor. Birth Defects Research (Part A). 2009 85: 231-232.

  • Burd, L., Carlson, C., & Kerbeshian, J. Mental Health Disorders Comorbid With Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders. In: Alcohol-Related Cognitive Disorders, L. Sher, I. Kandel, and J. Merrick (Eds), 2009 Nova Science Publishers, Inc. 111-123.

  • Burd, L., Klug, M.G., Li, Q., Kerbeshian, J., & Martsolf, J.T. Diagnosis of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: A Valididy Study of the Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Checklist. Alcohol 2009  1-10.

  • Herrick, K., Hudson, L., & Burd. L. The Elephant in the Cradle Zero to Three 2009 2001, January. 44-50

  • Hofer, R. & Burd, L. Review of published Studies of Kidney, Liver, and Gastrointestinal Birth Defects in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders Birth Defects Research (Part A) 2009 85: 179-183.

  • Burd, L. and Hofer, R. Biomarkers for Detection of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure: A Critical Review of Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters in Meconium. Birth Defects Research (Part A). 2008. 82: 487-493.

  • Burd, L., Klug, M.G., Bueling, R, Martsolf, J., Olson, M., & Kerbeshian, J. Mortality Rates in Subjects with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders and Their Siblings. Birth Defects Research (Part A). 2008. 82(4): 217-223.

  • Burd, L., Carlson, C., & Kerbeshian, J. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders and Mental Illness. Int. J. Disabil. Human Dev. 2007. 6(4): 383-396.

  • Burd, L., Deal, E., Rios, R., Adickes, E., Wynne, J., & Klug, M.G. Congenital Heart Defects and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders. Congenital Heart Dis. 2007. 2: 250-255.

  • Burd, L., Roberts, D., Olson, M., & Odendaal, H. Ethanol and the Placenta: A Review. Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine. 2007. 20(5): 361-375.

  • Odendaal, H.J., Elliott, A., Signore, C., Burd, L. The adverse effects of alcohol consumption during pregnancy on the developing fetus. J Perinat Med. 2007. (Suppl. II) 

  • Burd, L Commentary: Intervention in FASD: We Must Do Better. Child: Care, Health and Development. 2006. 33(4): 398-400.

  • Burd, L., Klug, M.G., Martsolf, J., Martsolf, C., Deal, E., & Kerbeshian, J. A Staged Screening Strategy for Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Maternal Risk Stratification. Journal of The Royal Society for the Promotion of Health. 2006. 126(2): 86-94.

  • Peng, C. Z., Burd, L. An introduction to screening instruments and diagnostic criteria for fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Chinese Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 2006. 5: 452-454.

  • Burd, L. Introduction: Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. Addiction Biology. 2004. 9: 115-118.

  • Burd, L. Introduction: Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part C (Semin. Med. Genet.). 2004. 127C: 1-2.

  • Burd, L. & Wilson, H. Fetal, Infant, and Child Mortality in a Context of Alcohol Use. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part C (Semin. Med. Genet.). 2004. 127C: 51-58.

  • Burd, L., Klug, M.G., & Martsolf, J.T. Increased Sibling Mortality in Children with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. Addiction Biology. 2004. 9: 179-186.

  • Burd, L., Martsolf, J.T., & Juelson, T. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder in the Corrections System: Potential Screening Strategies. Journal of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome International. 2004. 2(e1): 1-10.

  • Burd, L., Selfridge, R.H., Klug, M.G., & Bakko, S.A. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome in the United States Corrections System. Addiction Biology. 2004. 9: 169-176.

  • Lupton, C., Burd, L., & Harwood, R. Cost of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders Cost of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part C (Semin. Med. Genet.). 2004. 127C: 42-50.

  • Burd, L. & Juelson, T. Community Based Screening for Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. In: Encyclopedia on Early Childhood Development [online].(Eds.) Tremblay, R.E., Barr, R.G., Peters, R.DeV. 2003. Montreal, Quebec: Centre of Excellence for Early Childhood Development. 1-6. Available at: http://www.excellence-earlychildhood.ca/documents/Burd-JuelsonANGxp.pdf.

  • Burd, L., Cotsonas-Hassler, T.M., Martsolf, J.T., & Kerbeshian, J Recognition and Management of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. Neurotoxicology and Teratology. 2003. 25(6): 681-688.

  • Burd, L., Klug, M.G., Martsolf, J.T., & Kerbeshian, J. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: Neuropsychiatric Phenomics. Neurotoxicology and Teratology. 2003. 25(6): 697-705.

  • Burd, L., Martsolf, J.T., Klug, M.G., & Kerbeshian, J. Diagnosis of FAS: A Comparison of the Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Diagnostic Checklist and the Institute of Medicine Criteria for Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. Neurotoxicology and Teratology. 2003. 25(6): 719-724.

  • Burd, L., Martsolf, J.T., Klug, M.G., O’Connor, E., & Peterson, M. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure Assessment: Multiple Embedded Measures in a Prenatal Questionnaire. Neurotoxicology and Teratology. 2003. 25(6): 675-679.

  • Burd, L., Selfridge, R.H., Klug, M.G., & Juelson, T. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome in the Canadian Corrections System. Journal of FAS International . 2003. 1(e14): 1-10.

  • Klug, M.G. & Burd, L. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Prevention: Annual and Cumulative Cost Savings. Neurotoxicology and Teratology. 2003. 25(6): 763-765.

  • Klug, M.G. & Burd, L., Martsolf, J.T., & Ebertowski, M. Body Mass Index in Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. Neurotoxicology and Teratology. 2003. 25(6): 689-696.

  • Klug, M.G., Burd, L., Kerbeshian, J., Benz, B., & Martsolf, J.T. A Comparison of the Effects of Parental Risk Markers on Pre- and Perinatal Variables in Multiple Patient Cohorts with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, Autism, Tourette Syndrome, and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: An Enviromic Analysis. Neurotoxicology and Teratology. 2003. 25(6): 707-717.

  • Poitra, B.A., Marion, S., Dionne, M., Wilkie, E., Dauphinais, P., Wilkie-Pepion, M., Martsolf, J.T., Klug, M.G., & Burd, L. A School Based Screening Program for Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. Neurotoxicology and Teratology. 2003. 25(6): 725-729.

  • Burd, L. Maternal Risk Assessment. 2001.  

  • Burd, L. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: A Handbook for Parents and Teachers. 2001.  

  • Burd, L., Cox, C., Fjelstad, K., & McCulloch, K. Screening for Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: Is It Feasible and Necessary? Addiction Biology. 2000. 5: 127-139.

  • Burd, L. The FAS Screen. 1999.  

  • Burd, L., Cox, C., Poitra, B., Wentz, T., Ebertowski, M., Martsolf, J.T., Kerbeshian, J., & Klug, M.G. The FAS Screen: A Rapid Screening Tool for Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. Addiction Biology. 1999. 4: 329-336.

  • Bagheri, M., Burd, L., Martsolf, J.T., & Klug, M.G. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: Maternal and Neonatal Characteristics. Journal of Perinatal Medicine. 1998. 26: 263-269.

  • Burd, L. & Wentz, T. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: The North Dakota Experience. North Dakota Journal of Human Services. 1997. 1(3): 14-20.

  • Burd, L., Martsolf, J.T., & Klug, M Children with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome in North Dakota: A Case Control Study Utilizing Birth Certificate Data. Addiction Biology. 1996. 1: 181-189.

  • Burd, L., Martsolf, J.T., Kerbeshian, J., Mohr, P., Mohr, T., & Ebertowski, M. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: Delineation and Management. Clinical Advances in the Treatment of Psychiatric Disorders. 1996. 10(4): 1-8.

  • Burd, L. & Moffatt, M.E.K. Epidemiology of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome in American Indians, Alaskan Natives, and Canadian Aboriginal Peoples: A Review of the Literature. Public Health Reports. 1994. 109(5): 688-693.

  • Burd, L. & Martsolf J.T. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: Diagnosis and Syndromal Variability. Physiology and Behavior . 1989. 46: 39-43.

  • Kerbeshian, J. & Burd L. Asperger's Syndrome and Tourette Syndrome: The Case of the Pinball Wizard. British Journal of Psychiatry. 1986. 148: 731-736.

  • Burd, L Prenatal Alcohol Use Assessment booklet  

  • Burd, L Assessment of Alcohol Exposure (Prior to Pregnancy )  

  • Burd, L Prenatal Blood Alcohol Concentration Calculator (.xlsx format)  

  • Burd, L. Assessment of Alcohol Exposure (During Pregnancy )  

  • Burd, L. Prevalence & Cost Calculator  

  • Burd, L. Adverse Outcomes from Prenatal Alcohol Exposure  

  • Burd, L. FAS  

  • Burd, L. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome in North Dakota (PDF)  

  • Burd, L. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome in North Dakota (PowerPoint)  

  • Burd, L. Rating Behavior Scale  

  • Burd, L. AD-HD Rating Scale  

  • Burd, L. Risk Marker Score  

  • Burd, L. FAS Epidemiologic Exposure Model  

  • Burd, L. Assessment of Smoking Exposure ( During Pregnancy )  

  • Burd, L. Prenatal Risk Assessment Questionnaire  

  • Burd, L. Calculate Maternal Risk Score.  

  • Burd, L. Epidemiology - Number Needed to Treat Calculator  

  • Burd, L. Epidemiology - Risk Calculator  

  • Burd, L. Epidemiology - Diagnostic Test Calculator  

  • Burd, L. Community Based Assessment  

  • Burd, L. Assessment of Smoking Exposure (Prior to Pregnancy )  

  • Updated on May 19, 2011
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